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News
Jun
4
DNS on the Client: An Apology and a Learning Lesson
Posted by Reprinted Article on 04 June 2013 10:58 AM

Well, as mentioned on the final line in our previous post here:

It is our job as IT “Professionals” to know the “WHY” things work so that we can set things up properly.”

And, thanks to my fellow MVP Dave Shackleford taking the time to make things a bit clearer in the comments of the blog post, I now have a clearer picture of DNS on the client side.

My mistake was pulling the server round-robin structures into client.

In the case of the client, it will _always_ poll the primary DNS (DNS0 on the NIC/DHCP) server for its resolution needs. If for any reason something happens to the primary to cause it to not answer the client will move to the secondary DNS (DNS1 on the NIC/DHCP) and poll that server for about an hour.

So, my apologies for the misleading information. Lesson learned.

And, as Dave points out, and is our experience, if something causes a break between the primary DNS server and the client moves to the router or an Internet based DNS server that client will not move back in-house for a period of time.

What this means is that we still stand by our original premise on how the on-premises network should be configured to only poll DNS servers internally.

In a pinch the edge device can be set to deliver DHCP and DNS to clients if the only DC/DNS server goes down or a secondary DC can have the DHCP Role enabled but not online for backup purposes.

Thanks again for reading! :)

Philip Elder
MPECS Inc.
Microsoft Small Business Specialists
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen
Find out more at
www.thirdtier.net/enterprise-solutions-for-small-business/

Windows Live Writer


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Jun
4
DNS on the Client: An Apology and a Learning Lesson
Posted by Reprinted Article on 04 June 2013 10:58 AM

Well, as mentioned on the final line in our previous post here:

It is our job as IT “Professionals” to know the “WHY” things work so that we can set things up properly.”

And, thanks to my fellow MVP Dave Shackleford taking the time to make things a bit clearer in the comments of the blog post, I now have a clearer picture of DNS on the client side.

My mistake was pulling the server round-robin structures into client.

In the case of the client, it will _always_ poll the primary DNS (DNS0 on the NIC/DHCP) server for its resolution needs. If for any reason something happens to the primary to cause it to not answer the client will move to the secondary DNS (DNS1 on the NIC/DHCP) and poll that server for about an hour.

So, my apologies for the misleading information. Lesson learned.

And, as Dave points out, and is our experience, if something causes a break between the primary DNS server and the client moves to the router or an Internet based DNS server that client will not move back in-house for a period of time.

What this means is that we still stand by our original premise on how the on-premises network should be configured to only poll DNS servers internally.

In a pinch the edge device can be set to deliver DHCP and DNS to clients if the only DC/DNS server goes down or a secondary DC can have the DHCP Role enabled but not online for backup purposes.

Thanks again for reading! :)

Philip Elder
MPECS Inc.
Microsoft Small Business Specialists
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen
Find out more at
www.thirdtier.net/enterprise-solutions-for-small-business/

Windows Live Writer


Read more »



May
21
Repeat After Me: DHCP and DNS Belong on a DC
Posted by admin on 21 May 2013 03:01 PM

When configuring any network one needs to have an understanding of just how DNS works.

If DNS is not set up correctly there are so many things that break it is not funny.

Unlike mail routing (MX records) that offer a priority system for directing mail to the final destination where the system compensates for an offline mail server DNS operates in a round robin fashion.

So, if DHCP is set up on a router and delivers the following IPs for the client’s DNS queries:

  • 192.168.99.5 (local DC)
  • 192.168.99.1 (router)
  • 8.8.8.8 (Google DNS server)

Guess how many times the client’s on-premises resource DNS queries, in general, will fail.

If you guessed “67%” then you would be right.

It seems that folks are missing the reason for “Domain” in “Domain Naming System” or DNS for short.

The primary excuse we’ve heard so far to set the above DNS server IP settings on clients and even Remote Desktop Services servers and other servers is:

  • I want my clients to be able to browse the Internet if the DC and DNS goes offline.

There is, however, a fatal flaw in that line of reason . . . the missing “Domain” in DNS.

Or, to be blunt: A lack of understanding how DNS works on-premises and on the Internet and why the two are separate from each other.

Let’s have a look at this very crude drawing:

image

The left hand box is the on-premises Domain network. On that network MYDC is authoritative for that domain. Everything inside the box boundary for the network belongs to that DC and its on-premises DNS setup.

MYDC is the Start of Authority (SOA) for that domain (DOMAIN.LOCAL).

Being that our MYDC has the SOA means that no other DNS server _anywhere on the planet_ will be an authority for that domain. At least, for _that_ particular domain name in that particular location.

Not to mention the Top Level Domain (TLD) .LOCAL is not to be found anywhere on the Internet either.

What that means is that any client that queries DNS where MYSQL is will get the correct IP address from the DC that hosts the on-premises _domain’s_ DNS because that server is _authoritative_ for that domain.

Now, what happens on the client if they query DNS for MYSQL.DOMAIN.LOCAL and Google/OpenDNS server IPs are on the client’s DNS “where to query” server list and they respond?

That query goes OUTSIDE of the domain network to Google or OpenDNS and the response back is, “I have no clue who, what, or where the chicken DOMAIN.LOCAL is. Check ROOT SERVERS.” And of course, they answer same.

So, we have 67% of our on-premises queries failing DNS resolution.

Let’s think about that for a moment.

. . .

67% of our DNS queries are FAILING.

That means poor network performance, network print problems, LoBs that depend on database/SQL connections losing their connections, improper RDP routing, and so much more.

The _proper_ way to configure a domain’s DNS is as follows:

  • On the only DC on the network
    • AD and DNS are properly integrated
    • DHCP on the server
      • Name Protection Set (Ticks on 2003):
      • image
      • Admin credentials set to update DNS with IP:image
  • The DC NIC properties:
    • IP: 192.168.33.5
    • SN: 255.255.255.0
    • GW: 192.168.33.1
    • DNS0: 192.168.33.5 (SELF ONLY)
      • AD integrated DNS takes care of delivering IPs for other DC with DNS on the network. There is NO reason to put any other IP in DNS1.
  • DHCP configuration:
    • Scope Options:
      • 003 Router: 192.168.33.1
      • 006 DNS Servers: 192.168.33.5 (and other AD integrated DC/DNS server IPs)
      • 015 DNS Domain Name: DOMAIN.LOCAL
    • That’s it. Google/OpenDNS server IPs DO NOT belong here.
  • DNS Server service
    • Forwarders Tab
      • OpenDNS IPs or ISP’s DNS server IPs (at least two).

DHCP belongs on the server. Period. Full-stop.

If DHCP is on the router with DNS pointers to Google/OpenDNS or ISP DNS servers served to the on-premises DHCP clients then changes need to be made to put DHCP back where it belongs. . . on the DC.

If there is a concern about the only DC going down and leaving the clients helpless then make sure the backups are good.

If a need for redundancy is there then install an HP MicroServer with a Standard license and DCPromo that box into the domain. Make sure replication and AD integrated DNS are functioning between the now two DCs on the domain (we’ve seen situations where the second DC or RODC had no SYSVOL due to broken replication).

Or install an online cold backup device but make sure that the primary server has Software Assurance as Cold Backup is an SA only option.

For Small Business Server networks there _is_ a caveat to having another DC on the domain when in a disaster recovery situation.

In the end, a good chunk of the problems on a network such as connectivity, Line of Business application problems, performance, and more can have their source in an improperly configured DNS structure.

It is our job as IT “Professionals” to know the “WHY” things work so that we can set things up properly.

Philip Elder
MPECS Inc.
Microsoft Small Business Specialists
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen
Find out more at
www.thirdtier.net/enterprise-solutions-for-small-business/

Windows Live Writer


Read more »



May
21
Repeat After Me: DHCP and DNS Belong on a DC
Posted by admin on 21 May 2013 03:01 PM

When configuring any network one needs to have an understanding of just how DNS works.

If DNS is not set up correctly there are so many things that break it is not funny.

Unlike mail routing (MX records) that offer a priority system for directing mail to the final destination where the system compensates for an offline mail server DNS operates in a round robin fashion.

So, if DHCP is set up on a router and delivers the following IPs for the client’s DNS queries:

  • 192.168.99.5 (local DC)
  • 192.168.99.1 (router)
  • 8.8.8.8 (Google DNS server)

Guess how many times the client’s on-premises resource DNS queries, in general, will fail.

If you guessed “67%” then you would be right.

It seems that folks are missing the reason for “Domain” in “Domain Naming System” or DNS for short.

The primary excuse we’ve heard so far to set the above DNS server IP settings on clients and even Remote Desktop Services servers and other servers is:

  • I want my clients to be able to browse the Internet if the DC and DNS goes offline.

There is, however, a fatal flaw in that line of reason . . . the missing “Domain” in DNS.

Or, to be blunt: A lack of understanding how DNS works on-premises and on the Internet and why the two are separate from each other.

Let’s have a look at this very crude drawing:

image

The left hand box is the on-premises Domain network. On that network MYDC is authoritative for that domain. Everything inside the box boundary for the network belongs to that DC and its on-premises DNS setup.

MYDC is the Start of Authority (SOA) for that domain (DOMAIN.LOCAL).

Being that our MYDC has the SOA means that no other DNS server _anywhere on the planet_ will be an authority for that domain. At least, for _that_ particular domain name in that particular location.

Not to mention the Top Level Domain (TLD) .LOCAL is not to be found anywhere on the Internet either.

What that means is that any client that queries DNS where MYSQL is will get the correct IP address from the DC that hosts the on-premises _domain’s_ DNS because that server is _authoritative_ for that domain.

Now, what happens on the client if they query DNS for MYSQL.DOMAIN.LOCAL and Google/OpenDNS server IPs are on the client’s DNS “where to query” server list and they respond?

That query goes OUTSIDE of the domain network to Google or OpenDNS and the response back is, “I have no clue who, what, or where the chicken DOMAIN.LOCAL is. Check ROOT SERVERS.” And of course, they answer same.

So, we have 67% of our on-premises queries failing DNS resolution.

Let’s think about that for a moment.

. . .

67% of our DNS queries are FAILING.

That means poor network performance, network print problems, LoBs that depend on database/SQL connections losing their connections, improper RDP routing, and so much more.

The _proper_ way to configure a domain’s DNS is as follows:

  • On the only DC on the network
    • AD and DNS are properly integrated
    • DHCP on the server
      • Name Protection Set (Ticks on 2003):
      • image
      • Admin credentials set to update DNS with IP:image
  • The DC NIC properties:
    • IP: 192.168.33.5
    • SN: 255.255.255.0
    • GW: 192.168.33.1
    • DNS0: 192.168.33.5 (SELF ONLY)
      • AD integrated DNS takes care of delivering IPs for other DC with DNS on the network. There is NO reason to put any other IP in DNS1.
  • DHCP configuration:
    • Scope Options:
      • 003 Router: 192.168.33.1
      • 006 DNS Servers: 192.168.33.5 (and other AD integrated DC/DNS server IPs)
      • 015 DNS Domain Name: DOMAIN.LOCAL
    • That’s it. Google/OpenDNS server IPs DO NOT belong here.
  • DNS Server service
    • Forwarders Tab
      • OpenDNS IPs or ISP’s DNS server IPs (at least two).

DHCP belongs on the server. Period. Full-stop.

If DHCP is on the router with DNS pointers to Google/OpenDNS or ISP DNS servers served to the on-premises DHCP clients then changes need to be made to put DHCP back where it belongs. . . on the DC.

If there is a concern about the only DC going down and leaving the clients helpless then make sure the backups are good.

If a need for redundancy is there then install an HP MicroServer with a Standard license and DCPromo that box into the domain. Make sure replication and AD integrated DNS are functioning between the now two DCs on the domain (we’ve seen situations where the second DC or RODC had no SYSVOL due to broken replication).

Or install an online cold backup device but make sure that the primary server has Software Assurance as Cold Backup is an SA only option.

For Small Business Server networks there _is_ a caveat to having another DC on the domain when in a disaster recovery situation.

In the end, a good chunk of the problems on a network such as connectivity, Line of Business application problems, performance, and more can have their source in an improperly configured DNS structure.

It is our job as IT “Professionals” to know the “WHY” things work so that we can set things up properly.

Philip Elder
MPECS Inc.
Microsoft Small Business Specialists
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen
Find out more at
www.thirdtier.net/enterprise-solutions-for-small-business/

Windows Live Writer


Read more »



Oct
9
Clear OS – An Alternative to SBS?
Posted by jeremy on 09 October 2012 12:40 PM

Part three of a six part series looking at ClearOS, one of the major commercial alternatives to Small Business Server.  In this post I look at the operation aspects of the server, primarily focusing on domain join and file sharing.  Be sure to read part one for an overview of ClearOS and part two for an introduction to the installation process.

Part Three: General Operation

I have set up and installed a ClearOS server to see if I would be willing to use it to replace a Windows server environment.  Previously in part two I detailed the installation process.  Now I want to dive into the actual operation of the server.  I am working with a Windows Vista Client on this network.  I actually chose Vista for a specific reason.  It is the “red-headed step child “of the Windows Client OS’s .  If Vista works, anything will work.  The first thing I did was log into the machine with a local account and check my IP address and network connectivity.  I have an IP address from the ClearOS server, DNS points to the ClearOS server, NSlookup resolves clearos.linux.local (my server and domain name) .  Everything here is looking good.  I attempted to join it to the domain as I would if there was a Windows domain controller on the network.  System – Properties, Domain, Change: linux.  I entered my Winadmin Credentials, waited for a second, and received the positive news: Welcome to the LINUX domain.

I rebooted the Vista machine and at the login prompt I entered LINUX\Winadmin and my password and I logged in.  Domain Join worked, worked properly, and was painless.  There was no difference here than vs. joining a Windows domain.

I had a domain admin account, I can log in to my client machine.  The next testing step is to create some users and file shares.  Creating a user is done under the System tab of the ClearOs web interface.  There is nothing new or unusual about this setup.  You choose users, add, and add the user.

Enter the user’s information, and at the bottom of the page you have the option to add them to security groups if you have already created any.  If you choose to install the Messaging application Zarafa, the options are here to set up the SMTP address, set the mail quota, and add aliases.  I did not include a screen shot as it’s a really long form, but it’s a simple web page form, with everything you need for adding a user on one page.

As expected, limited and domain admin accounts work as they should on the Vista client.  The Domain Admin account can install software and make system configuration changes.  A limited user account can not.  There is no difference here compared to a Windows domain.  You are able to make limited domain users ‘local admins’ and assign them the right to log in via remote desktop.

The next thing I wanted to do was to create a share, and make sure that my users can access it.  This is where I hit a wall.  I clicked around for a bit on the different tabs, Server, File, no where can I create a share.  Network, nope, it’s not there.  I needed to find out how to create a share.  I realized that this is an OS where nothing is installed, unless I choose to install it.  To the MarketPlace!   It turns out that I missed installing the application FlexShare when I did my initial install from the MarketPlace.

Flexshares are flexible share resources that allow an administrator to quickly and easily define data sharing, collaboration and access areas via web, file, FTP and/or e-mail (as attachments).

I quickly installed Flexshares and then went to create my share.

Ok, so I have an HR share, I allowed access to the HR group, it’s enabled.  Being impatient that I am, I jumped back to my Vista box, logged in as an HR user, and I could not browse the share.

The actual next step is to enable the Share as a Windows File Share:

Going back to my Vista machine, I still can’t see the HR share, nor can I browse to it.  I go back to the Flex Share, choose edit, and look at it:

Notice the Top Status is: “Disabled”.  In the first screen shot, it is “enabled”

Once you set this back to Enabled, you can successfully browse the share from the Vista client.  This seems to be a minor bug, or it could also be user error, as I was not able to recreate it consistently.  This might just be something to be aware of when creating your shares.  Another major consideration with the default implementation of Flex Shares in ClearOS is that using FlexShares, there is no way to dictate where your share is located in the file system.  You can make changes in the system configuration files from a shell session, but this is not available in the web interface and changing it in the configuration files is not intuitive or simple.  By default, FlexShares stores all data on the root partition.  This is important to consider when you are sizing your server.

The next question is how to map these drives on a consistent basis.  ClearOS provides for Login Scripts to be run.  In the administration interface, browse to the Server, Windows Networking, mode.  Make sure the logon script is enabled. By default, the file is called login.cmd, you can change it as necessary if you want to run a different name, or a VB Script.  From a client workstation, you can open the share \\servername\Netlogon and upload the batch file to map drives.  This is a hidden share, so you need to navigate to it directly.  You can also set a Drive Letter Mapping for users home directories in this location as well.

There of course are no group policies to lock down the workstation, or to install software, or even to configure the firewall.  Advanced configuration could be done with a login script; however, completely managing client workstations from a script could become cumbersome.  The basic functionality of file and printer set up can be done with ease.

Domain join and file sharing work better than I could ever have hoped out of the box.  The native support for home directories and logon scripts is a big positive aspect when choosing to use ClearOS.  I tested several of my day to day tasks on domain joined machines and all of them worked.  I was able to remotely manage the machine, log on via RDP and limit user access.  Logon Scripts work, and I was able to use a VB script based on user group membership to map drives successfully.  Clear OS is a complete file sharing solution.  User and group set up is fast, easy and straight forward.  It truly does ‘just work’.  As a file server alone, that requires centralized administration, I would have no problem recommending ClearOS.


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Sep
26

Log Name:      Microsoft-Windows-Small Business Server/Operational
Source:        Windows Small Business Server 2011 Standard
Event ID:      501
Description:
Windows Small Business Server 2011 Standard allows a maximum of 75 user accounts and computers. If you have more than this, use the Windows SBS Console to remove some computers or user accounts.

Once you start to get this error you’ll get it once a day until the issue is resolved. The problem is that SBS is detecting that your active directory contains more than 75 objects in a category. So it’s time to clean up your AD.

Here how I go about it:

1. Move all service accounts and templates into the Manage Service Account container. This container is new-ish  active directory and is designed to house all of those service accounts that have to exist but aren’t really users. This exempts them from licensing.

image

2. Delete those user and computer accounts that haven’t logged in, in a long time.

First you need to identify them. To find computer accounts that haven’t logged in, in 4 weeks run this command: dsquery computer –inactive 4     Then move those machines into a ToBeDeleted OU so you can verify that they truly no longer exist. Do the same for user accounts. Once you have identified the accounts to be removed, delete them. 

 

It’s not difficult to clean up your Active Directory. This maintenance activity should be done on a regular basis in all environments whether small or large. Regardless of the size it will help you stay within your purchased CAL limit.


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