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Jun
9
Storage Configuration: Know Your Workloads for IOPS or Throughput
Posted by Philip Elder on 09 June 2014 11:30 AM

Original Here: MPECS Inc. Blog: Storage Configuration: Know Your Workloads for IOPS or Throughput

Here we have a practical example of how devastating a poorly configured disk subsystem can be.

image

The above was one of the first Iometer test runs we did on our Storage Spaces setup. The above 45K IOPS was running on 17, yes seventeen, 100GB SSD400S.a HGST SAS SSDs.

Obviously the configuration was just whacked. :(

Imagine the surprise and disappointment one would have supplying a $100K SAN and ending up with the above results after the unit was put into production and the client was complaining that things were not happening anywhere near as fast as expected.

What we are discovering is that tuning a storage subsystem is an art.

There are so many factors that one needs to keep in mind as far as the types of workloads that will be running on the disk subsystem right through to the hardware driving it all.

After running a large number of tests using Iometer, and with some significant input from fellow MVP Tim Barrett, we are beginning to gain some insight into how to configure things for the given workload.

This is a snip taken of a Simple Storage Space utilizing _just two_ 100GB HGST SSD400S.a SAS SSDs (same disks as above):

image

Note how we are now running at 56K IOPS. :)

Microsoft has an awesome, in-depth, document on setting things up for Storage Spaces performance here:

We suggest firing the above article into OneNote for later reference as it will prove invaluable in figuring out the basics for configuring a Storage Spaces disk subsystem. It can actually provide a good frame of reference for storage performance in general.

Our goal for our Proof-of-Concept testing that we are doing was around 1M IOPS.

Given what we are seeing so far we will hopefully end up running at about 650K to 750K IOPS! That’s not too shabby for our “commodity hardware” setup. :)

Philip Elder
Microsoft Cluster MVP
MPECS Inc.
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen ASP Project
Find out more at
Third Tier: Enterprise Solutions for Small Business


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Jun
5
Cluster Starter Labs: Hyper-V, Storage Spaces, and Scale-Out File Server
Posted by Philip Elder on 05 June 2014 02:55 PM

Original Posted Here: MPECS Inc. Blog: Cluster Starter Labs: Hyper-V, Storage Spaces, and Scale-Out File Server

The following are a few ways to go about setting up a lab environment to test out various Hyper-V and Scale-Out File Server Clusters that utilize Storage Spaces to tie in the storage.

Asymmetric Hyper-V Cluster
  • (2) Hyper-V Nodes with single SAS HBA
  • (1) Dual Port SAS JBOD (must support SES-3)

In the above configuration we set up the node OS Roles and then enable Cluster. Once cluster is enabled we can import our not initialized shared storage into Cluster Disks and them move them over to Cluster Shared Volumes.

In this scenario one should split the storage up three ways.

  1. 1GB-2GB for Witness Disk
  2. 49.9% CSV 0
  3. 49.9% CSV 1

Once the virtual disks have been set up in Storage Spaces we run the quorum configuration wizard to set the witness disk up.

We use two CSVs in this setup so as to assign 50% of the available storage to each node. This shares the I/O load. Keep this in mind when looking to deploy this type of cluster into a client setting as well as the need to make sure all paths between the nodes and the disks are redundant (dual SAS HBAs and a dual expander/controller JBOD).

Symmetric Hyper-V Cluster with Scale-Out File Services
  • (2) Scale-Out File Server Nodes with single SAS HBA
  • (1) Dual Port SAS JBOD
  • (2) Hyper-V Nodes

For this particular set up we configure our two storage nodes in a SOFS cluster and utilize Storage Spaces to deliver our shares for Hyper-V to access. We will have a witness share for the Hyper-V cluster and then at least one file share for our VHDX files depending on how our storage is set up.

Lab Hardware

The HP MicroServer would be one option for server nodes. Dell C1100 1U off-lease servers can be found on eBay for a song. Intel RS25GB008 or LSI 6Gb SAS Host Bus Adapters (HBAs) are also easily found.

For the JBOD one needs to make sure the unit supports the full compliment of SAS commands being passed through to the disks. To run with cluster two SAS ports that access all of the storage installed in the drive bays is mandatory.

The Intel JBOD2224S2DP (WSC SS Site) is an excellent unit to work with that compares feature wise with DataON, Quanta, and the Dell JBODs now on the Windows Server Catalogue Storage Spaces List.

Some HGST UltraStar 100GB and 200GB SAS SSDs (SSD400 A and B Series) can be had via eBay every once in a while for SSD Tier and SSD Cache testing in Storage Spaces. We are running with the HGST product because it is a collaborative effort between Intel and HGST.

Storage Testing

For storage in the lab it is preferred to have at least 6 of the drives one would be using in production. With six drives we can run the following tests:

  • Single Drive IOPS and Throughput tests
    • Storage Spaces Simple
  • Dual Drive IOPS and Throughput tests
    • Storage Spaces Simple and Two-Way Mirror
  • Three Drive IOPS and Throughput tests
    • Storage Spaces Simple, Two-Way Mirror, and Three-Way Mirror
  • ETC to 6 drives+

There are a number of factors involved in storage testing. The main thing is to establish a baseline performance metric based on a single drive of each type.

A really good, and in-depth, read on Storage Spaces performance:

And, the Microsoft Word document outlining the setup and the Iometer settings Microsoft used to achieve their impressive 1M IOPS Storage Spaces performance:

Our previous blog post on a lab setup with a few suggested hardware pieces:

Philip Elder
Microsoft Cluster MVP
MPECS Inc.
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen ASP Project
Find out more at
Third Tier: Enterprise Solutions for Small Business


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May
26
Hyper-V 2 Node JBOD DAS Cluster IOPS Run
Posted by Philip Elder on 26 May 2014 07:07 PM

Original Posted Here: MPECS Inc. Blog: Hyper-V 2 Node JBOD DAS Cluster IOPS Run

This is just the beginning of our testing with Iometer:

image

image

The setup is the following:

  • Hyper-V Nodes
    • Intel Server Systems R2208GZ4GC, dual Intel Xeon E5-2680v2, 32GB ECC, dual Intel RAID Controller RS25GB008 SAS HBAs
    • Intel Storage Systems JBOD2224S2DP JBOD
    • (17) 100GB HGST SSD400 SAS SSDs
    • Windows Server 2012 R2 U1
    • Storage Spaces with Simple across all SSDs
      • Small Witness Disk
      • (2) CSVs at ~760GB each

We had no idea as far as what to expect with this setup since each CSV is being managed by one node.

As we go along learning how Iometer works and how the disks react to various workloads we will publish additional results.

Then we will go on to run the same tests again only with the above setup configured in a Scale-Out File Server Cluster with a 10GbE backend facilitated by a pair of Intel Server Adapter X540T2 NICs in each node, NETGEAR 10GbE XS712T switches, and a pair of Hyper-V Nodes.

Hopefully with the Active/Active setup we get with SOFS and SMB Multi-Channel our performance will come out a bit better!

This test configuration was Option 1 in the Three Intel Server Systems based Hyper-V and Scale-Out File Server Clusters Post.

Philip Elder
Microsoft Cluster MVP
MPECS Inc.
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen ASP Project
Find out more at
Third Tier: Enterprise Solutions for Small Business


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May
23

Original Posted Here: Three Intel Server Systems based Hyper-V and Scale-Out File Server Clusters

Here are three base Intel Server Systems configurations we are working on for our Intel Modular Server replacement in a Data Centre or client setting.

Unfortunately, the Intel JBOD does not self-power at this time. So, for SMB/SME solutions we will be supplying a DataON DNS-1640 2U JBOD as it will automatically power-up after a full power outage.

All solution sets are based on Windows Server 2012 R2 as a starting point for Hyper-V, Storage Spaces, and SOFS.

  • Option 1: Asymmetric Hyper-V Cluster via Storage Spaces CSV
    • Intel Server System R2208GZ4GC, Dual E5-2640, 128GB ECC or 256GB ECC, 120GB SSD RAID 1, dual SAS HBAs, add-in Intel i350T4 PCIe
    • Intel JBOD2224S2DP
  • Option 2: Hyper-V Cluster via SMBv3 Scale-Out File Server cluster and Storage Spaces
    • Intel Server System R1208JP4OC, E5-2640, 128GB ECC, 120GB SSD RAID 1, dual SAS HBAs, Intel X540T2 I/O Module, Intel X540T2 PCIe
    • Intel JBOD2224S2DP
    • Intel Server System R1208JP4OC, E5-2640, 128GB ECC, 120GB SSD RAID 1, Intel i350T4 PCIe, Intel X540T2 I/O Module, Intel X540T2 PCIe
    • NETGEAR XS712T 10GbE Switches
  • Option 3: Hyper-V Cluster via SMBv3 Scale-Out File Server cluster and Storage Spaces with enclosure resilience
    • (3) Intel Server System R2208GZ4GC, Dual E5-2640, 128GB ECC, 120GB SSD RAID 1, SIX SAS HBAs, Intel X540T2 I/O Module, Intel X540T2 PCIe
    • (3) Intel JBOD2224S2DP
    • (2) Intel Server System R2208GZ4GC, Dual E5-2640, 128GB ECC, 120GB SSD RAID 1, Intel i350T4 PCIe, Intel X540T2 I/O Module, Intel X540T2 PCIe
    • (2) NETGEAR 24-Port 10GbE Switches
  • Storage Networking Option
    • Option 2 and Option 3 can be facilitated by InfiniBand NICs and Switches
      • Enables RDMA and 56Gbps per connection
      • Microsoft’s 1.4M IOPS demo based on InfiniBand backend
      • Intel Server Systems have an InfiniBand I/O Module with the second being a Mellanox PCIe

The first setup is relatively simple while the second two require some structuring around how the networking is configured to allow for SMB Multi-Channel on the storage network side.

At this point the above setups utilizing Intel Server Systems provide us with an amazing value for our IT budgets.

5 year warranties and next business day on-site support options can be had too.

We purchase our Intel Channel product primarily through ASI Canada. Ingram Micro, Synnex Canada, and Tech Data Canada are also Intel Authorized Distributors.

As an FYI we continue to build our own server systems because the experience proves to be invaluable when it comes to troubleshooting problems especially when software vendors are pointing fingers.

Building our own systems also gives us a very strong foundation for creating server configurations that will work with a client workload set.

And finally, it allows us to be very particular with Tier 1 vendors when it comes to creating a server configuration using their hardware.

EDIT: Note that we _always_ install a physical DC on our cluster networks. For option 1 it would probably be an HP MicroServer while the others would be a 1U single socket with some storage for ISOs.

Philip Elder
Microsoft Cluster MVP
MPECS Inc.
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen ASP Project
Find out more at
Third Tier: Enterprise Solutions for Small Business


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Dec
18
Repeat After Me: SATA Does Not Belong In Servers Part Deux
Posted by Philip Elder on 18 December 2013 04:57 PM

Original Post Here:   MPECS Inc. Blog: Repeat After Me: SATA Does Not Belong In Servers Part Deux

NOTE to SMB Kitchen Subscribers: This is the article I was hunting for during our Hyper-V Q&A session yesterday.

For the last number of years we have stopped deploying servers with SATA drives installed.

There are so many reasons why we stopped but here are a few comparisons to SCSI/SAS:

  • SATA does not have the ability to manage a high I/O workload
  • SATA only offers a single inbound and outbound data port while SAS offers dual ports for redundant paths
  • SATA does not have the health monitoring capabilities with SMART certainly not cutting it
  • SATA does not offer anywhere near the capabilities and command set that SAS does for server related tasks, disk redundancy, disk sharing, and so much more

There is a reason why disk manufacturers have tacked on SAS controllers to SATA platter sets. These so-called NearLine drives offer all of the SAS goodness but with SATA capacities.

Here is the first public, that I know of, presentation from Microsoft on the _why_ SATA does not belong in servers.

To quote specifically:

1.Use the per I/O control mechanism that is known as Force Unit Access (FUA). This flag specifies that the drive should write the data to stable media storage before signaling (sic) is finished. Applications that have to do this make sure that data is stable on the disk issue FUA to make sure that data is not lost if a power failure occurs.

Server-class disk drives (SCSI and Fibre Channel) generally support the FUA flag. On commodity drives (ATA, SATA, and USB), FUA might not be honored. (emphasis added) This can potentially leave data in an inconsistent state unless the drive’s write cache is disabled. Make sure that the disk subsystem handles FUA correctly if you depend on this mechanism

When listening to a discussion on this the above applies even when SATA disks are used in a properly configured RAID setup whether software (host-based) or hardware RAID on Chip.

In addition, if one were to be setting up a Storage Spaces cluster with multiple paths to the JBOD unit then one would be required to set it up with SAS based SSDs for the high performance storage tier. SATA will work in a single server and single enclosure lab like setting but _not_ in production.

We have had other posts on this topic that outline many other reasons for our decision to drop SATA in servers. The SATA category and the SAS category would be one place to start. :)

Philip Elder
Microsoft MVP
MPECS Inc.
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen
Find out more at
Third Tier: Enterprise Solutions for Small Business


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Jun
29
A Storage Spaces and Hyper-V Cluster Lab Guide
Posted by Reprinted Article on 29 June 2013 06:25 PM

Here is a good start for a lab environment:

A set of DAS JBOD units can used with two small nodes and 2 SAS based HBAs per node to stand up a Storage Spaces cluster using the Server 2012 R2 bits. A couple of MicroServer Gen8 boxes would round out the Hyper-V side of it.

On this blog there are a lot of configurations discussed that utilize intelligent direct attached storage.

  • Basic setup
    • Intel Server System SR1695GPRX2AC pair with Promise VTrak E610sD or E310sD
    • This category search on the blog has a number of really good posts including configuration examples based on the SR1695GPRX2AC (blog category link)
      • This server unit has been our go-to for base configurations as it is an excellent and flexible platform
  • Advanced setup
    • Intel Server System R2208GZ4GC pair with the Promise VTrak E610sD or E310sD
  • All-Out Setup
    • All of the above plus LSI SAS 6160 Switch pair and Intel Modular Server with 3 nodes.

In the above setups the key is the intelligent storage providing mitigation services to the SAS HBAs and OS access to the central storage.

With the 2012 R2 bits we are going to put together a redundant JBOD setup for a Storage Spaces cluster. This is the next direction we are delving into as we can put together a small SS cluster for a very reasonable cost.

Today, we are working on the following (similar to David Ziembicki’s setup) setup for clustered Storage Spaces:

  • Basic
    • Intel Server System R1208JP4OC with pair of SAS HBAs (RS25GB008) (2 nodes)
      • 32GB of ECC per node to start
    • Intel Storage System JBOD2224S2D2 JBOD2224S2DP Intel JBOD units (2 units)
      • JBOD is dual expander and dual port backplane
      • Seagate Savvio SAS drives are dual port
    • 1m SAS Cables (4)
    • Windows Server 2012 R2 beta – Storage Spaces Cluster Setup
    • Intel Server System R2208GZ4GC pair for Hyper-V nodes (we have had these in our lab for a year or so now).
      • 64GB to 128GB of ECC
    • Windows Server 2012 R2 beta or RTM – Hyper-V Nodes
  • Advanced
    • Add a pair of 8-Port or 12-Port NETGEAR 10Gbit Ethernet switches
      • Ports on each NIC would be split between switches for redundancy
    • Add a pair of Dual-Port 10Gbit PCIe and/or I/O Module NICs to each node
      • 10Gbit Ethernet would SMBv3 Storage Spaces located VHDX
      • 10Gbit Ethernet would be for Live Migration Network
    • LSI SAS Switches (we have a pair of these in our lab setting)
    • Additional Intel JBOD units to test switches and scaling storage out

Using David Ziembicki’s setup though one would be able to start at the base level and put together a similar configuration on a budget.

An HP MicroServer Gen8 would make an excellent platform for testing as they are relatively inexpensive and have pretty close to the full Intel virtualization Acceleration feature set.

Note that the Sans Digital MS28X listed in his blog post splits drives 0-3 and 4-7 between the two available external SAS connections. That means that there is no ability to use this storage unit without an LSI SAS 6160 Switch pair (Sans Digital MS28X Quick Installation Guide PDF)!

However, the Sans Digital MS8X6 unit does support redundancy and therefore they could be used to test Storage Spaces clustering configurations (Sans Digital MS8X6 Quick Installation Guide PDF).

Of course, for the added functionality there will be an extra cost involved, however one could drop the LSI SAS Switch for a set of these units for about the cost of the original MS28X plus SAS Switch!

  • Storage Spaces Cluster
    • Storage Spaces Node
      • Intel Xeon E3-1230
      • Intel Server Board S1200BTLSH
      • 16GB ECC
      • Intel Integrated RAID RMS2AF040
      • 120GB Intel 320 Series SSD (or small 10K SAS) RAID 1 pair for host OS
      • Quad-Port Intel Gigabit Server NIC PCIe
      • Intel certified chassis (whether Intel or other)
    • Storage
      • Sans Digital MS8X6
        • 300GB 15K 3.5" SAS drives can be found for a good deal today
    • Hyper-V Node
      • Intel Xeon E3-1230
      • Intel Server Board S1200BTLSH
      • 32GB ECC
      • Intel Integrated RAID RMS2AF040
      • 120GB Intel 320 Series SSD (or small 10K SAS) RAID 1 pair for host OS
      • Quad-Port Intel Gigabit Server NIC PCIe
      • Intel certified chassis (whether Intel or other)
    • OPTIONS
      • Add Intel RMM4 for full KVM over IP
      • Add Dual-Port 10Gbit Intel Ethernet for SMBv3 and Live Migration Networks
      • Add Intel Storage Systems JBOD2224S2DP at a later date for full SAS Dual Port Redundancy

There are so many different ways to go about this.

The main thing is to start small and work one’s way up to a full scale server grade lab as the jobs come in! That’s how we built our own lab systems up and how we built up the knowledgebase and experience!

EDIT: Oops, Star Wars on the mind. Intel Storage Systems part number should be JBOD2224S2DP (I had JBOD2224S2D2 above!). :)

Philip Elder
MPECS Inc.
Microsoft Small Business Specialists
Co-Author: SBS 2008 Blueprint Book

Chef de partie in the SMBKitchen
Find out more at
www.thirdtier.net/enterprise-solutions-for-small-business/

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